Advanced Formation Evaluations in Carbonates

This course is a must for any engineers working on carbonates. This cover;

  • Estimating both m and n at downhole
  • Modeling and quantifying the effects of vugs mainly on the parameter “m” in the Archie equation.
  • Using the GR log to estimate the volume of dolomite (Vdol). This is a first step to quantify the effects of hydrocarbon shift on the density-neutron log X-plot.
  • Using the resistivity and porosity logs to quantify the values and effects of micro-porosity. The pore structure in carbonates is essentially a dual-porosity
  • Rock typing based on the pore-throat This is used to define zoning and to obtain improved permeability in carbonates.
  • The applications of the various new high technology tools in interpreting carbonates. This includes PNX, sonic-scanner, Dielectric scanner, MR- Scanner and cross-well electromagnetic scanning.
  • The course will have daily workshop sessions covering 22 field

Who should attend?

This course is a must for all Petrophysicists, reservoir engineers and geologists in- involved in data acquisition and interpretation. No previous open hole knowledge or special expertise is needed.


Day 1

 Carbonates geology and variable parameters

  • Nomenclature and agenda
  • Carbonate Geology and deposition environment
  • Dolomitization and its effects on carbonates properties
  • Reservoir Rocks and their properties
  • Reservoir Parameters- Parameter variations
  • Tool Conveyance in Open Hole
  • Logging Unit-Depth Control
  • Drilling and mud filtrate Invasion
  • Natural GR GR variations in carbonates and its applications to determine the volume of dolomite.
  • Important Variables in Carbonates: Variations in “m”, “n”, vugs, fractures, micro-porosity, etc.
  • hour Workshop on leak

Day 2

Porosity and Lithology and Hydrocarbon evaluations

  • Physics of neutron logging – neutron porosity and capture cross-section (Σ). Application of Sigma obtained from Open Hole Logging
  • The density Physics and limitations.
  • The acoustic Estimating secondary porosity
  • Density neutron cross-plots to obtain porosity and
  • Hydrocarbon effects on the density and neutron How the hydrocarbon effect can be quantified in carbonates
  • Using Gamma Ray Log in carbonates to estimate the volume of dolomite
  • Basics of Resistivity: Rxo and RT array measurements

Day 3

Evaluation of variable parameters in Carbonates

  • The formation The use of the formation factor to obtain a correlation between Porosity vs “m”.
  • Wettability and the Saturation exponent “n”. Parameters affecting the coefficient “n”
  • Estimating the porosity exponent “m” and Saturation Exponent “n” at downhole conditions.
  • Modeling the vug The effect of vugs on the parameter “m”.
  • The effects of Carbonates
  • Dual Macro and Micro porosities quantifications.
  • Estimating water salinities in a variable salinity
  • Estimating water saturation (Sw) in carbonates
  • Standalone PNL interpretations in carbonates
  • Permeability estimations in carbonates

1-hour Workshop on wettability, microporosity, and “m”

Day 4 

Core analysis

  • Core The various techniques of obtaining cores.
  • Core Evaluating cores to estimate m, relative permeability, porosity, capillary pressure, and the parameter “n”.
  • Core-Log Depth correlations between logs and cores.
  • Capillary Pressure from the core
  • Capillary pressure from the NMR, T2
  • Capillary Pressure applications to estimate pore
  • Rock types: Winland and the Middle East Equation (MEE) The applications of rock typing for zonation and for estimating permeability.
  • Flow Units and the Lorenz plots

1-hour Workshop on rock

Day 5

High Technology Data Acquisition: and application Interpretations in carbonates

  • Wireline Formation Testing (WFT)- Pressure Gradient
  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: MR-Scanner to evaluate rock pore
  • Imagining: Quanta Geo
  • Dielectric Scanner: applications for interpretations in fresh-water Evaluating rock textures.
  • The Litho-Scanner: Accurate evaluation of complex Competing the total Inorganic carbon percentage.
  • The Sonic –Scanner: Applications to estimate permeability from Stonely, maximum and minimum stress values, and anisotropy.
  • Rt-Scanner: Application in laminated sand
  • Pulsar- PNX- new high technology pulsed neutron with 21 bursts of neutron in the inelastic range. Special applications for C/O and for detecting gas.
  • X-Well EM: This is used to map the water flood between

1-hour Workshop on WFT, Pulsar and Sonic Scanner applications in Carbonates.