## Advanced Sandstone Interpretations

### Course Outline:

This is a 5-day course that covers a wide range of data acquisition and interpretations in sandstone reservoirs. This covers the following:

- Basic applications of the Gamma Ray Log (GR) and Spontaneous Potential (SP) to estimate volume of shale (Vsh) Clay Type, and formation water resistivity (Rw)
- The density-neutron log cross plots are used to obtain Effective Porosity (
*ɸ*), Total Porosity (*e**ɸ*), and lithology volumes. (Vsand and Vsh).*t* - Resistivity measurements, combined with porosity values, to compute the

porosity exponent (m) and saturation exponent (n) at downhole conditions.

- Detailed outline of the various procedures to obtain Vsh and to differentiate between dispersed and laminated shale. Clay and Shale structures.
- Detailed outline of the various water saturation (Sw) shaly-sand equations: empirical equations and universal equation (dual-water, Waxman-Smits). A quick look interpretation procedure is outlined to obtain a full interpretation.
- Evaluating the parameters of the porosity exponent (m) and the saturation exponent (n) directly from logs.
- The use of Pulsed Neutron Logging (PNL) to obtain standalone interpretations in sandstone reservoirs with no previous data.
- High Technology tool applications for sandstone This includes:
- Wireline formation testing (WFT)
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
- Dielectric log measurements
- Pulsed Neutron Spectroscopy
- Borehole

### Who should attend?

This course will be suitable for all geoscientists who will benefit greatly from exposure to advanced knowledge and expertise in formation evaluations in Clastics. The course reviews the various shaly sand equations and their applications, high technology data applications, important parameter computations and high technology tools applications in sandstones.

**Day-****1:**

### Agenda

- Tool Conveyance in Open Hole
- Depth Control in Open
- Petroleum Geology:
- Petroleum
- Sandstone
- Tectonic

- Gamma Ray Spectroscopy: applications for:
- Estimating
- Geological
- Clay

- The Spontaneous Potential Applications to estimate:
- Volume of Shale (Vsh).
- Estimating formation water salinity (
).*Rw*

- Sonic-Scanner measurements to estimate:
- Intermatrix porosity and secondary
- Detecting high-pressure
- Evaluating sandstone
- Anisotropy
- Stonely Permeability
- Maximum and minimum stress 1- hours Workshop to estimate Vsh and Rw

### Day-2:

- Nuclear Tools
- The density Log
- The modern Neutron porosity log
- Applications of the density-neutron cross plot to determine:

- Effective porosity(
*ɸ*), Vsh, and Total Porosity (*e**ɸ*).*t* - Evaluate the hydrocarbon effects on the density-neutron in shaly
- Deep and shallow resistivity Resistivity applications.
- Evaluating the formation factor (porosity exponent “m”) variations from logs and from cores.
- Evaluating the saturation exponent (n) from logs at downhole conditions using the capture cross-section data from the neutron log.
- Hour Workshop on density-neutron cross-plots to estimate effective porosity, total porosity, and Vsh

### Day-3:

- The saturation equations in shaly-sand formations:
- Empirical equations (Simandoux, Indonesia, Nigeria, .).
- Universal Equations: Dual-Water, Waxman-Smits, Modified Waxman-Smits. This covers in detail the derivation of the W-S and D-W equations and the concept of total porosity.

- Detailed outline of shales and the various measurements to estimate
- Detailed outline of the Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) needed for the Waxman-Smits Equation. Estimating CEC from cores and from log
- Quick look at applications of the various water saturation
- Sand anisotropy: Rt-Scanner and the applications of the Klein plots
- Hour Workshop: Estimating water saturation (Sw) from logs using the various Sw equations.

### Day-4:

- Evaluations of dispersed and laminated shale using the Thomas-Stieber and Poupon- Juhasz approach.
- Dual porosity: Estimating the silt porosity from log
- Using Pulsed Neutron Logs to do standalone interpretations in old wells with limited data and in wells with no previous log data.
- Using wireline formation testing (WFT):
- Pressure Gradients: Obtain the fluid contacts in the reservoir (Gas/oil, gas/water, and oil/water).
- Determine uneven
- Determine overpressure

- Permeability Estimations in Sandstone Reservoirs

- hour workshop: dispersed and laminated shales, PNL applications in old wells with no data, WFT applications.

### Day-5:

- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI):
- Tool Theory
- Applications in sandstone reservoirs: evaluate bonded and free fluid volumes
- Estimating Permeability
- MR-Scanner applications

- Dielectric Theory and Applications
- Physics of dielectric measurement
- Applications in freshwater
- Using dielectric data to compute CEC and “m”.

- Modern Pulsed Neutron
- Applications in complex reservoirs
- Using Aluminum to compute the most accurate values for Vsh
- Computing the Total Organic Carbon (TOC). This correlates well with the true value of oil saturation.

- Overview of Logging While Drilling (LWD) Data acquisition
- Basic LWD Tools
- Sourceless Density and Neutron

- Borehole Imaging applications in Sandstone
- Imaging tools: Formation MicroImager (FMI),and Quanta Geo (induction).
- Application for stratigraphic and structural

1- hour workshop: on MRI, Borehole Imaging and Dielectric applications.