## Advanced Formation Evaluations in Carbonates

This course is a must for any engineers working on carbonates. This cover;

- Estimating both m and n at downhole
- Modeling and quantifying the effects of vugs mainly on the parameter “m” in the Archie equation.
- Using the GR log to estimate the volume of dolomite (Vdol). This is a first step to quantify the effects of hydrocarbon shift on the density-neutron log X-plot.
- Using the resistivity and porosity logs to quantify the values and effects of micro-porosity. The pore structure in carbonates is essentially a dual-porosity
- Rock typing based on the pore-throat This is used to define zoning and to obtain improved permeability in carbonates.
- The applications of the various new high technology tools in interpreting carbonates. This includes PNX, sonic-scanner, Dielectric scanner, MR- Scanner and cross-well electromagnetic scanning.
- The course will have daily workshop sessions covering 22 field

**Who should attend?**

This course is a must for all Petrophysicists, reservoir engineers and geologists in- involved in data acquisition and interpretation. No previous open hole knowledge or special expertise is needed.

**AGENDA**

**Day 1**

** ****Carbonates geology and variable parameters**

- Nomenclature and agenda
- Carbonate Geology and deposition environment
- Dolomitization and its effects on carbonates properties
- Reservoir Rocks and their properties
- Reservoir Parameters- Parameter variations
- Tool Conveyance in Open Hole
- Logging Unit-Depth Control
- Drilling and mud filtrate Invasion
- Natural GR GR variations in carbonates and its applications to determine the volume of dolomite.
- Important Variables in Carbonates: Variations in “m”, “n”, vugs, fractures, micro-porosity, etc.
**hour Workshop on leak**

**Day 2**

**Porosity and Lithology and Hydrocarbon evaluations**

- Physics of neutron logging – neutron porosity and capture cross-section (Σ). Application of Sigma obtained from Open Hole Logging
- The density Physics and limitations.
- The acoustic Estimating secondary porosity
- Density neutron cross-plots to obtain porosity and
- Hydrocarbon effects on the density and neutron How the hydrocarbon effect can be quantified in carbonates
- Using Gamma Ray Log in carbonates to estimate the volume of dolomite
- Basics of Resistivity: Rxo and RT array measurements

**Day 3**

**Evaluation of variable parameters in Carbonates**

- The formation The use of the formation factor to obtain a correlation between Porosity vs “m”.
- Wettability and the Saturation exponent “n”. Parameters affecting the coefficient “n”
- Estimating the porosity exponent “m” and Saturation Exponent “n” at downhole conditions.
- Modeling the vug The effect of vugs on the parameter “m”.
- The effects of Carbonates
- Dual Macro and Micro porosities quantifications.
- Estimating water salinities in a variable salinity
- Estimating water saturation (Sw) in carbonates
- Standalone PNL interpretations in carbonates
- Permeability estimations in carbonates

**1-hour Workshop on wettability, microporosity, and “m”**

** Day 4**** **

**Core analysis**

- Core The various techniques of obtaining cores.
- Core Evaluating cores to estimate m, relative permeability, porosity, capillary pressure, and the parameter “n”.
- Core-Log Depth correlations between logs and cores.
- Capillary Pressure from the core
- Capillary pressure from the NMR, T2
- Capillary Pressure applications to estimate pore
- Rock types: Winland and the Middle East Equation (MEE) The applications of rock typing for zonation and for estimating permeability.
- Flow Units and the Lorenz plots

**1-hour Workshop on rock **

**Day 5**

**High Technology Data Acquisition: and application Interpretations in ****carbonates**

- Wireline Formation Testing (WFT)- Pressure Gradient
- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: MR-Scanner to evaluate rock pore
- Imagining: Quanta Geo
- Dielectric Scanner: applications for interpretations in fresh-water Evaluating rock textures.
- The Litho-Scanner: Accurate evaluation of complex Competing the total Inorganic carbon percentage.
- The Sonic –Scanner: Applications to estimate permeability from Stonely, maximum and minimum stress values, and anisotropy.
- Rt-Scanner: Application in laminated sand
- Pulsar- PNX- new high technology pulsed neutron with 21 bursts of neutron in the inelastic range. Special applications for C/O and for detecting gas.
- X-Well EM: This is used to map the water flood between

**1-hour Workshop on WFT, Pulsar and Sonic Scanner applications in Carbonates.**** **